Decoding Final Tax Residency Rules for Australian Expats

Are you an Australian expat concerned about the tax residency rules and how they might affect your financial obligations?

The Australian Taxation Office (ATO) has recently released updated guidance on tax residency rules for individuals with Taxation Ruling TR 2023/1. This ruling replaces previous ATO guidance and incorporates relevant case law to provide clarity on residency status.

In this blog post, we will decode the final tax residency rules for Australian expats, highlighting key points from the ATO's guidance and addressing common misconceptions.

Let's dive in!

TR 2023/1 - Understanding the Key Factors

Under the "ordinary concepts" or "resides" test, the ATO considers several key factors to determine tax residency:

  • Period of Physical Presence: The length of time spent in Australia is a crucial factor in assessing tax residency.
  • Intention or Purpose of Presence: The ATO examines an individual's intention or purpose of being in Australia, whether it's for short-term visits or with a more long-term intent.
  • Behaviour while in Australia: How an individual behaves while in Australia, including their involvement in business, employment, and social activities, is considered.
  • Family, Business, and Employment Ties: The ATO looks at an individual's family, business, and employment connections to Australia.
  • Maintenance and Location of Assets: The ATO considers the maintenance and location of an individual's assets, including properties, investments, and personal belongings.
  • Social and Living Arrangements: An individual's social and living arrangements in Australia, such as owning or renting a home, are taken into account.

It's important to note that the ATO has not provided a specific weighting for these factors, as their significance may vary depending on individual circumstances. Each case is evaluated on its own merits, and the ATO reserves the right to assign their own weightings based on the situation.

Misconceptions about Tax Residency

There are a number of all too common misconceptions when it comes to tax residency of Australia, and I have dispelled a few of the more common ones below.

  • 183-Day Rule: One common misconception is that if an individual is not present in Australia for 183 days in a year, they automatically become a non-resident for tax purposes. However, the 183-day test is just one of the four residency tests, and an individual only needs to satisfy one of them to be considered a tax resident. Additionally, even if an individual spends 183 days or more in Australia, they may still fail the test if they have a "usual place of abode" outside the country.
  • 45 Days in Australia: On the other hand, some mistakenly believe that spending less than 45 days in Australia automatically makes them non-residents. While discussions around the Board of Taxation's review proposed a "bright line" test of 45 days, this review does not carry the force of law. The ATO's ruling emphasises that the relevant factors should be examined closely to determine whether a continued connection to Australia exists, even with less than 45 days spent in the country.
  • Tax Residency Resumption Date: Another point of confusion is when an individual resumes tax residency. There is no fixed period required to become a resident; an individual becomes a resident on the day they satisfy one of the four residency tests. A change in residency status can occur on the day an individual switches from satisfying at least one test to satisfying none of them. It's essential to consider intent and duration when assessing tax residency.

Expected Legislative Reform

Although changes to the tax residency rules for individuals were anticipated following the Board of Taxation's review in 2017, no legislative changes have been announced thus far. The budget announcements in recent years have not included the proposed reform measure. While the budget measure outlined a two-step test for residency, there has been no clarity on whether the government plans to implement the Board's recommendations.

Looking ahead, it remains uncertain if and when the government will implement the proposed rules. The lack of legislative change suggests that any updates to the residency rules may not occur in the next 12 months. It is important for individuals to stay informed and seek professional advice regarding their residency status.


Determining tax residency can be complex and requires careful examination of individual circumstances. The ATO's recent guidance, Taxation Ruling TR 2023/1, provides valuable insights into the key factors considered when assessing tax residency for Australian expats. It is crucial to address common misconceptions, such as the 183-day rule and the 45-day threshold, and understand that tax residency can change based on intent and duration.

If you have questions about your tax residency status or need assistance with expat tax returns, it is recommended to consult with specialists who stay up to date with the latest ATO guidance, case law, and private rulings. We can assist you in determining your current position, introduce you to the right professionals to assist where required, and ensure that you’re on the right side of the tax residency rules.

Navigating the tax residency rules is essential for Australian expats to fulfill their tax obligations accurately and avoid potential issues in the future. Stay informed, seek expert advice, and ensure compliance with the latest regulations.


To Your Financial Success!

Jarrad Brown is an Australian-trained and qualified Fee-Based Financial Planner Global Financial Consultants Pte Ltd providing specialist financial advice and portfolio management services to Australian professionals in Singapore. Jarrad Brown is an Authorised Representative of Global Financial Consultants Pte Ltd - No: 200305462G | MAS License No: FA100035-3

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General Information Only: The information on this site is of a general nature only. It does not take into account your individual financial situation, objectives or needs. You should consider your own financial position and requirements before making a decision.

*Please note that Jarrad Brown is not a tax agent or accountant and none of the content outlined here should be taken as personal advice. You should consult your tax agent and financial adviser to review your current personal finances and financial goals to consider whether this strategy is appropriate for you.

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